Trap-neuter-vaccinate-return (TNVR) is a program where free roaming cats (unowned) are humanely trapped, sterilized, vaccinated and medically treated, and returned to their outdoor habitats where they were found. If those locations are thought to be unsafe, feral cats (unsocialized to humans) are relocated. This is a last resort though as there is much involved in relocation and the success rate isn't all that good.
Kittens still young enough to be socialized, and friendly adult cats, are typically placed in foster care for adoption. Cats found suffering with terminal or untreatable illnesses or injuries are humanely euthanized.
TNVR is a real team effort. Trappers are needed to skillfully and humanely trap the cat. Normally, several cats are trapped at the same time with numerous traps. The cats are then transported to a licensed veterinarian where a team prepares the cats for surgery. The cats are spayed or neutered and vaccinated for rabies. (Sometimes, depending on the recommendations of the veterinarian, vaccinations may include distemper and others.)
After surgery, the cats are not released back to their normal outdoor habitats until after a designated recovery time. Instead of stitches, the outside layer of the incision is glued after applying absorbable stitches to the inner layers to prevent the need to retrap and have the stitches removed.
After the cats are returned to their outside homes, typically a caretaker or team of caretakers will provide food, water, shelter, care and love. An outside cat with caretakers will live a much longer life than ones without someone caring for them.
TNVR, also known as TNR trap-neuter-return, is a well thought out and planned process. It requires the dedication and hard work of many people. And it changes the lives of these cats for the better. They will no longer reproduce and with time, attrition will drastically reduce the numbers of these cats. There are many other details and such that make up TNVR.
Just remember, TNVR is the only proven solution to the Community Cat issue. It is less costly and humane. These cats need you to show your compassion and common sense and to step up for them!